[1] A. Garnache, A. Laurain, M. Myara, J. .-P. Perez, L. Cerutti, A. Michon, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Cermak, and D. Romanini, "Design and properties of high-power highly-coherent single-frequency VECSEL emitting in the near- to mid-IR for photonic applications," ser. Photonics West, vol. 7919, San Francisco, Jan. 2011.

Abstract : We demonstrate high power (multiwatt) low noise single frequency operation of tunable compact verical–external–cavity surface–emitting–lasers exhibiting a low divergence high beam quality, of great interest for photonics applications. The quantum-well based lasers are operating in CW at RT at 1 μm and 2.3 μm exploiting GaAs and Sb technologies. For heat management purpose the VECSEL membranes were bonded on a SiC substrate. Both high power diode pumping (using GaAs commercial diode) at large incidence angle and electrical pumping are developed. The design and physical properties of the coherent wave are presented. We took advantage of thermal lens–based stability to develop a short (0.5 − 5mm) external cavity without any intracavity filter. We measured a low divergence circular TEM00 beam (M^2 = 1.2) close to diffraction limit, with a linear light polarization (> 30 dB). The side mode suppression ratio is > 45 dB. The free running laser linewidth is 37 kHz limited by pump induced thermal fluctuations. Thanks to this high-Q external cavity approach, the frequency noise is low and the dynamics is in the relaxation-oscillation-free regime, exhibiting low intensity noise (< 0.1%), with a cutoff frequency  41MHz above which the shot noise level is reached. The key parameters limiting the laser power and coherence will be discussed. These design/properties can be extended to other wavelengths.

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